Correct Pencil Grasp

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Correct pencil grasp

Is there such a thing as a correct pencil grasp? This page explores what an ideal pencil grip should be, and what alternatives may also work.

Topics covered on this page:


Is There A Correct Pencil Grasp?

An ideal pencil grip is one in which enables the child to

  • Move the fingers (not the whole hand, the wrist or the arm) – controlling the pencil is more efficient with finger movements
  • Complete a writing or drawing task without getting tired
  • Complete a writing or drawing task neatly

Because all the factors above relate to function, I prefer the term “functional” or “efficient”  to describe the pencil grasp, rather than focusing on whether it is the correct pencil grasp.

Studies have shown that being able to use the small muscles of the hand and fingers plays a big role in a child’s handwriting, so it makes sense that the pencil grip should allow those refined finger movements.

An immature or poor pencil grip tends to block the finger movements, and the movements to form letters will come from the wrist and/or the arm instead.

So, with that in mind... what does an efficient, effective, functional grasp look like? The next section will show you!

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What Does A "Good" Pencil Grip Look Like?

Pencil grips can be classified in different ways, usually according to the number of fingers holding the pencil, and the position of the thumb on the shaft of the pencil.

Teachers have traditionally considered the correct pencil grasp to be the “dynamic tripod” grasp, where the thumb, index and middle fingers are holding the pencil.

The fingers are able to move freely, while the ring and little fingers curl gently into the palm, giving the hand stability.

However,  there are some variations on the dynamic tripod grip that researchers have found to be almost equally efficient during limited clinical trials. I demonstrate and explain these below.

Dynamic Tripod Pencil Grip

Dynamic tripod pencil grip
Dynamic tripod pencil grip

The tips of the thumb, index and middle fingers control the pencil in the dynamic tripod pencil grip. The thumb is opposed to the fingers, while the ring and little fingers are curled into the hand to give stability. (The technical name for the arch formed by the curled-in-fingers is the metacarpal-phalangeal arch.)

The dynamic tripod pencil grip grip enables the fingers to move freely, thus forming letters smoothly. This is why many teachers consider it to be the correct pencil grasp.

When a young child has three fingers on a pencil as shown, but is still using wrist or arm movements to form letters, then it is called a static tripod grip, and is considered immature.


Adapted Tripod, or D'Nealian Pencil Grasp

Adapted tripod (D'Nealian) pencil grip
Adapted tripod (D'Nealian) pencil grip

This unusual, but effective grip, has been especially useful for children and adults who have low muscle tone or painful joints.

The tips of the thumb, index and middle fingers hold the pencil, but the pencil rests between the index and middle fingers, instead of in the webspace next to the thumb.

This adapted tripod grip offers stability, but does not require as much pressure from the thumb to hold the pencil in place.


Dynamic Quadrupod Pencil Grip

Dynamic Quadrupod Pencil Grip
Dynamic Quadrupod Pencil Grip

In the dynamic quadrupod grip, the tips of the thumb, index, middle and ring fingers control the pencil. The thumb is opposed to the fingers, while the little finger is curled into the hand to give stability.

The presence of the fourth finger on the shaft tends to limit the range of movement a little, and there is a little less stability with only the little finger curled in on the side.


Lateral Tripod Pencil Grip

Lateral Tripod Pencil Grip
Lateral Tripod Pencil Grip

The lateral tripod uses the thumb, index and middle fingers to grip the pencil shaft. Although the tips of the index and middle fingers are used, it is the pad of the thumb that is used in this grip.

In a lateral grasp (whether tripod or quadripod), the thumb crosses over the shaft of the pencil, and the pad of the thumb often rests against the index finger (instead of the pencil shaft). This often blocks the full range of finger movements when compared to a dynamic tripod grasp.

The webspace (between the thumb and index finger) is a bit smaller with a lateral grasp, which limits some of the movement, and requires a bit more effort from the thumb to hold the pencil steady.


Lateral Quadrupod Pencil Grip

Lateral Quadrupod Pencil Grip
Lateral Quadrupod Pencil Grip

The lateral quadrupod is very similar to the lateral tripod, except that the ring finger is also involved in holding the pencil  and the stable arch is reduced.

Again, the pad of the thumb is used instead of the tip of the thumb.

Children using this grip may tire more easily during a long writing task than those using a more dynamic grip. This is possibly owing to the reduced stability on the side of the hand and/or the use of additional fingers to form the letters.

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Help Your Child Develop A Good Pencil Grip

Your child will probably NOT develop a better pencil grip just by having more practice with a pencil or crayon.

It is far better to look at some of the underlying skills needed for pencil control and to help your child develop these skills properly.

Read my article on the Essential Bases for Fine Motor Skills, and please do consult an occupational therapist for an assessment if you are at all worried about your child's development.

Here are some guidelines to help your child develop a good pencil grip:

1) Lots Of Cutting With Scissors

When your child uses scissors correctly, the thumb, index and middle fingers get lots of practice in working together. These are the fingers used to control a pencil.

Using the correct scissor grasp, with the ring and little fingers tucked into the hand, will help develop stability on the ulnar side of the hand, which helps with the hand stability needed for handwriting.

Check out these pages on my site:


2) Strengthen Core and Shoulder Girdle Muscles

Strengthening your child's core and shoulder girdle muscles will help your child's hand and finger muscles to move more freely. (Think how much more easily you can paint a wall when you are standing on a steady ladder rather than a wobbly one!)

Check out these pages on my site:


3) Work On Hand And Finger Skills

Recent research has shown that having a so-called correct pencil grasp is not as important as whether the fingers can move freely to form the letters in handwriting.

Give your child a head start on finger movements by incorporating some of these really easy activities into your daily routine:


Still looking for more information about pencil grasp?

Then check out the pages below:

Related Pencil Grip Pages

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› Correct Pencil Grasp



References

1. Koziatek, S. ; Powell, N.J. Pencil Grips, Legibility, and Speed of Fourth-Graders' Writing in Cursive  AJOT 57(3):284-8  May 2003
DOI: 10.5014/ajot.57.3.284 

2. Schwellnus, H.; Carnahan, H. ; Kushki, A. ; Chau, T.  Writing Forces Associated With Four Pencil Grasp Patterns in Grade 4 Children AJOT March 2013
DOI: 10.5014/ajot.2013.005538

3. Selin, A-S. Pencil Grip: A Descriptive Model And 4 Empirical Studies (dissertation).  Abo Akademi University Press, 2003.
ISBN 951-765-130-9

4. Ziviani, J. ; Elkins, J. Effect of Pencil Grip on Handwriting Speed and Legibility. Educational Review 38(3):247-257 • November 1986
DOI: 10.1080/0013191860380305

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 Summer Activities Sale!

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Summer vacation provides lots of opportunities to work on your child's gross and fine motor skills.

Get 20% off any OT Mom E-Book Products when you use this discount code at checkout!

summer2017

Don't forget to "update cart" after adding the discount code!

View a description of all my e-books here and don't forget to check out the Bundle Deals.

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Offer ends on 30 June 2017.
















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