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Having good shoulder girdle stability can help support your child's fine motor skills.
Many upper body exercises for kids work on improving the strength and stability of the shoulder girdle muscles.
Your clavicles (collar bones) and
scapulae (shoulder blades), together with the ligaments and muscles which connect to them, form a circle around the top of your rib cage. This is your shoulder girdle.
The shoulder girdle forms a stable base from which your shoulder joint can move, and
enables you to throw overhand and to carry out swimming strokes like the
crawl/freestyle, as well as supporting arm movements from the shoulder joint.
Shoulder girdle stability is thus the stability that takes place when the large muscles of the shoulder girdle (among others, the pectoral muscles in front and the trapezius and rhomboidus muscles at the back) contract together effectively to stabilise the shoulder blade and the shoulder joint.
This stability “sandwich” enables the smaller muscles in the arms and hands to work more efficiently because they have been given a stable base of support.
This can affect handwriting as well as other fine motor tasks.
Therapists often talk about needing proximal stability for distal mobility. This means that the large joints close to the body need to be stable, in order to provide a stable base for accurate movement at the joints further away from the body, such as the hand and fingers.
Good upper body strength and shoulder girdle stability will help your child to cut with scissors and to write without getting tired or producing messy work.
Other fine motor tasks such as craft work, tying shoelaces etc are also much easier to carry out when the shoulder girdle muscles give good stability.
Core stability forms a further stable platform for movements of the shoulder and scapula, so we often combine activities that work on core strength as well as shoulder girdle stability.
Your child's upper body strength, including shoulder stability, should develop through exposure to a large range of gross motor activities.
In infants, lying on the tummy and pushing up on the arms, as well as creeping/crawling will help the muscles of the shoulder girdle to develop.
Children should be encouraged to take part in activities that involve climbing, pushing, pulling, throwing and weight-bearing through their arms, in order to strengthen all the muscles around the shoulder joint and the scapula.
My gross motor e-books contain LOTS of good ideas for upper body exercises.
Weakness or damage to a muscle, or lax ligaments, can affect shoulder girdle stability.
Please contact your health professional if you are in any way concerned about your child's shoulder girdle or core strength.
Observe your child during a pencil-and-paper task and ask yourself these questions:
The children below are displaying tension at their shoulders and movement at their shoulders while they are doing a fine motor task.
Although young children attempting a task for the first time may hold their arms awkwardly or in an exaggerated way, they should soon relax as they become more accomplished.
But if your kindergarten or grade school child approaches every fine motor task with tension in the shoulders and tiring easily, then you may have reason to be concerned.
An assessment by a pediatric physical therapist or occupational therapist can help to identify and treat the underlying cause of the poor shoulder girdle stability, which may be low muscle tone, developmental delay, or a genetic disorder among other things.
Probably the first, and hardest step, is to simply help your child get more active! See how you can incorporate more gross motor games and sports in your child's life. Try and get a park date in once a week, and see if you can go swimming, which is great for all-over body strengthening.
Look for activities and games that involve pushing, pulling, clambering and crawling. Obstacle courses are great for these!
But sometimes kids need encouragement to work specifically on upper body and core strength, particularly if they have struggled with these activities in the past.
Here are some pages on my website that offer you photographed ideas that you can easily implement at home... have fun!
These activities are offered to promote your child's normal development. They are NOT a substitute for occupational therapy assessment and treatment.
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K Au, M.; M Chan, W.; Lee, L.; MK Chen, T.; MW Chau, R.; and Pang, M. Core Stability Exercise Is As Effective As Task-Oriented Motor Training In Improving Motor Proficiency In Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study. Clinical Rehabilitation. 28(10) March 2014. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215514527596 (abstract only)
Mcgill, Stuart. (1999). Stability: From biomechanical concept to chiropractic practice. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 43.
Oliver, G.; Stone, A.; Weimar, W.; Lemak, L.; Washington, J.; and Dougherty, C. Upper Extremity Muscle Activation during Bodyblade Exercises Following Six Weeks of Intervention Focusing on the Lumbopelvic-Hip Complex. Sports 2015, 3(3), 188-201; 3. 188-201. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports3030188
Oliver, G.; Stone, A.; Plummer, H. (2010). Electromyographic Examination of Selected Muscle Activation During Isometric Core Exercises. Clin J Sport Med. 2010 Nov; 20(6):452-7. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181f7b0ef. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21079441
Voight, Michael & Paine, Russ. (2013). The Role of the Scapula. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 8. 617- 629. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3811730/
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